Both keynote speakers were very good. The opening keynote by Bret Arsenault was information-packed. Bret gave an overview of the history of security challenges in the IT industry along with solid coverage of the challenges facing the industry today. The hour length of the keynote flew by quickly, a sure sign of an interesting session.
The closing keynote by Jesper Johansson, covering security improvements in Vista, was also (to invoke the cliche) entertaining and informative. I've been subscribed to Jesper's blog for a while now, so it was cool to hear him speak in person (particularly since he turned to out be a good in-person presenter as well as a good blogger). I didn't recognize Jesper by sight, as he wasn't wearing his scuba gear. :-) Jesper made a wry observation about why security can be a hard sell to corporate executives: It's a significant financial investment which, when finished -- if done properly -- will result in everything continuing to work as it has before!
Jesper also made a comment which makes good sense from a security perspective, but perhaps not from a "real-world" perspective. He asserted that any application which either requires administrative privileges to install and run, or writes per-user data to shared areas of the filesystem such as under Program Files or the Windows folder, is "broken." Jesper mentioned Adobe's Photoshop as an example of such an app.
I agree that such applications are certainly less than ideal, but for many software shops, the time and money to engineer apps to run well not just on all currently-available versions of Windows but on potential future Windows versions as well is a luxury that can't always be afforded. Not everyone has the cash in the bank to support the delay and re-delay of product releases to ensure that functionality that does not directly impact the user experience is perfect, like Microsoft is attempting with Vista. Still, the ideal of applications that are engineered superbly from both a features and security perspective is a worthy goal for developers.
One of the afternoon sessions focused on some types of attacks to which web applications are susceptible, such as SQL injection. I had heard variations of this session a couple of times before, including once at the 2003 PDC conference in Los Angeles. This session included one particularly nasty attack which was new to me, though, called a "one-click" attack. (The attack name brought to mind the infamous Amazon patent of the same name, although it turned out to be unrelated.) This attack involves coding a hidden form into a simple .html page which, when visited, invisibly auto-submits a request to another site to which the victim had recently logged in.
The example of the attack demonstrated was an employee visiting a (deceptively) simple "car for sale" web page on the internal corporate site, which modified the target account/routing number for the user's paycheck direct deposit via the recently-visited internal HR site. Dangerous stuff. (The solution involves setting up a key based on the session ID that is required to be submitted along with the change request, using an ASP.NET 1.1 ViewStateUserKey or other means.)
The second afternoon break-out session covered new features in Visual Studio .NET 2005 and SQL Server 2005 that support development of secure applications. One new SQL Server feature mentioned was EXECUTE AS, which uses impersonation to enable subsequent queries or commands to be run under the security context of another user. Impersonation is ended when a REVERT is run.
During the Q&A at the end, I asked whether nested EXECUTE AS operations were supported; in other words, if I do, in order: EXECUTE AS 'Alice' EXECUTE AS 'Bob' REVERT Then who am I running as at that point -- Alice, or the original user? The presenter wasn't sure. I looked into this briefly, and apparently (per this Bob Beauchemin blog post) nesting is indeed possible.
Also during the last afternoon break-out session, developers sitting in the first 5 rows (plus those who were willing to move up to the front from the back) got a free copy of the "Required reading at Microsoft" book Writing Secure Code, 2nd Edition. Happily, I was sitting in the 5th row. :-) I did partially read through a copy of this a couple of years ago, shortly after its release; now, with another couple of years of experience under my belt, I plan to give the book a more thorough read-through.